Amateka

Kwibohora: bimwe mu byaranze urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu.

Urugamba rwo kwibohora rwatangiriye, mu duce tumwe tw’iburasirazuba mu Mutara no mu majyaruguru y’urwanda (Mu Birunga).

U Rwanda rwahuye n’ingaruka zikomeye zikomoka ku bukoloni. Zimwe muri zo ni nk’aho abakoloni bumvishije Abanyarwanda ko batandukanye hashingiwe ku moko.

Abakoloni bagabanije Abanyarwanda mo amakoko atatu, ashingiye ku byo batunze indeshyo n’ibindi. Ayo moko twavuga, nk’Abatutsi , Abahutu n’Abatwa.

Ibi byakomeye mu gihe Ababiligi bakolonije u Rwanda kuva mu mwaka1918 kugeza mu 1958. Aha Ababiligi batangiye gutandukanye Abanyarwanda no kubateranya , aho bumvishaga Abahutu ko bakandamijwe n’Abatutsi. Ibintu byaje gukomera mu mwaka 1959, mu cyiswe Nyakotsi.

Aha abatutsi barahizwe baricawa , abandi baratwikirwa, ababirokotse batangira guhungira mu bihugu bituranye n’urwanda nka Kenya, Tanzania , Uganda, u Burundi na Zimbabwe.

Uko imyaka yagendaga ishira niko akarengane n’ihezwa byakorerwaga Abatutsi byakomeje kwiyongera. Nyuma mu mwaka 1987, Abanyarwanda aho bari mu buhungiro bihurije hamwe bakora Ishyaka Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Uko abantu benshi bagendaga barushaho kwihuriza hamwe niko n’ubushobozi bwagendaga buboneka.

Iri shyaka ryaje gushinga umutwe w’ingabo wiswe Rwanda Patriotic Army. Uyu mutwe ni nawo wafashe iyambere mu gutaniza urugamba rwo kwibohora.
Tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 kugeza tariki ya 18 Nyakanga 1994, ni cyo gihe urugamba rwo kwibohora rwamaze. Urugamba rwo kwibohora rwabaye hagati y’ingabo za Leta y’Urwanda yari iyobowe na Juvenal Habyarimana, n’ingabo za Rwanda Patriotic Army(RPA)Zayoborwaga na Fred Gisa Rwigema.

Urugamba rwo kwibohora rwatangiriye, mu duce tumwe tw’iburasirazuba mu Mutara no mu majyaruguru y’urwanda (Mu Birunga). Mu burasirazuba bw’urwanda ingabo za RPA zinjiriye i Kagitumba zirakomeza, kugeza ku 60 uvuye ku mupaka wa Uganda. Ibi ntibyaje gukomeza kuko ku musi wa Kabiri gusa w’Urugamba Umugaba mukuru wazo , Major General Fred Rwigema yishwe arashwe.

Ibi byabaye nk’ibikomye mu nkokora ingabo za RPA. Rwigema amaze kwicwa , abayobozi ba RPF bemeje ko Paul Kagame wari muri Amerika ariwe uza kuyobora ingabo ku rugamba. Aha Paul Kagame yasabye ingabo zose gusubira inyuma, aho byari ngombwa ko zibanza kwisuganya no kubona amabwiriza mashya yagombaga kuzifasha mu rugamba rwagombaga gukomeza.

Ingabo za RPA zakambitse mu Birunga, aho zacishagamo zikagaba ibitero shuma , mu nce zari zegeranye n’ibirindiro byazo. Mu mwaka 1992, Leta ya Habyarimana yemeye ko yagirana ibiganiro n’ingabo za RPF. Ibi byabaye nk’ibitanze agahenge kuko nko muri Kanama 1993, hasinywe amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha.

Bimwe mu byari bikubiye muri ayo mazezerano, harimo ko Leta y’u Rwanda na RPF bagombaga kugabana imyanya muri Guverinoma no Gushyiraho igisirikare gihuriweho n’impande zombi.

Kuva icyo gihe amasezerano asinywa, ingabo za RPA zahise zisubiza abasirikare bazo inyuma, Umuryango w’Abibumbye na wo wohereza ingabo mu Rwanda zari zije gukurikirana uko ibikubiye mu masezerano bishyirwa mu bikorwa. Ni Ubutumwa bwahawe izina rya UNAMIR (United Nation Assistance Mission For Rwanda).

N’ubwo RPA ku ruhande rwayo yubahirizaga ibikubiye mu mazezerano, mu Rwanda ho icyiswe Hutu Power cyari gihuriwemo n’amashyaka menshi y’abahutu( bari bakomeje gutegura umugambi wa Genoicide). Tariki 6 Mata 1994, ni bwo indege ya Habyarimana yahanuriwe mu mujyi wa Kigali. Kuva ubwo, Abatutsi bari mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu batangira kwicwa.

Mu gihe kitarenga iminsi 100, Abatutsi barenga 1,000,000 barishwe. Muri icyo gihe ariko RPA yafashe umwanzuro ko igomba gukomeza urugamba kuko Abanyarwanda bari bakomeje kwicwa urw’agashinyaguro. Urugamba rwongeye kubura, ingabo za RPA zifite inshingano zo kurwana no gukiza abicwaga n’Interahamwe zari zimaze igihe kirekire zihabwa imyitozo ya gisirikare rwihishwa mu Rwanda.

Muri Kamena, ingabo za RPA zari zimaze kuzenguruka umujyi wa Kigali, ingabo za leta zo zabonaga ko zirimo kugenda zitsindwa urugamba.

Tariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, kuri Radiyo y’igihugu ubuyobozi bwa RPA bwatangaje ku mugaragaro ko Kigali yafashwe. Jenoside yahagaritswe n’ubwo hari uduce tumwe utwanyuragamo Interahamwe n’ingabo zihunga hakomeje kwicwa abantu kugera tariki 18 Nyakanga.

Muri byinshi byakozwe, RPF igifata ubutegetsi kwari ugusana ibyangijwe n’intamabara, kongera kubaka ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda no kwihutisha iterambere Umunyarwanda wese aho ava akagera yibonamo.

Ubutumwa Umukuru w’igihugu ageza ku Banyarwanda buri mwaka, ku munsi nkuyu, avugako ubwo urugamba rw’amasasu rwarangiye, hakurikiyeho kurwana urugamba rwo kwiteza imbere.

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